Science as Social Knowledge

Science as Social Knowledge

Conventional wisdom has it that the sciences, properly pursued, constitute a pure, value-free method of obtaining knowledge about the natural world. In light of the social and normative dimensions of many scientific debates, Helen Longino finds that general accounts of scientific methodology cannot support this common belief. Focusing on the notion of evidence, the author argues that a methodology powerful enough to account for theories of any scope and depth is incapable of ruling out the influence of social and cultural values in the very structuring of knowledge. The objectivity of scientific inquiry can nevertheless be maintained, she proposes, by understanding scientific inquiry as a social rather than an individual process. Seeking to open a dialogue between methodologists and social critics of the sciences, Longino develops this concept of "contextual empiricism" in an analysis of research programs that have drawn criticism from feminists. Examining theories of human evolution and of prenatal hormonal determination of "gender-role" behavior, of sex differences in cognition, and of sexual orientation, the author shows how assumptions laden with social values affect the description, presentation, and interpretation of data. In particular, Longino argues that research on the hormonal basis of "sex-differentiated behavior" involves assumptions not only about gender relations but also about human action and agency. She concludes with a discussion of the relation between science, values, and ideology, based on the work of Habermas, Foucault, Keller, and Haraway.

Download Now


Author
Publisher Princeton University Press
Release Date
ISBN 0691209758
Pages pages
Rating 4.5/5 (53 users)

More Books:

Science as Social Knowledge
Language: en
Pages:
Authors: Helen E. Longino
Categories: Philosophy
Type: BOOK - Published: 2020-03-31 - Publisher: Princeton University Press

GET EBOOK

Conventional wisdom has it that the sciences, properly pursued, constitute a pure, value-free method of obtaining knowledge about the natural world. In light of
Science, Values, and Objectivity
Language: en
Pages: 317
Authors: Peter Machamer
Categories: Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2004 - Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre

GET EBOOK

Collection of essays that identify the values crucial to science, distinguish some of the criteria that can be used for value identification, and elaborate the
Science, Society, and Values
Language: en
Pages: 270
Authors: Sal P. Restivo
Categories: Social Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 1994 - Publisher: Lehigh University Press

GET EBOOK

This book covers some of the major contributions Sal Restivo has made to the sociology of science over the past twenty years. His work has been guided by three
Science, Policy, and the Value-Free Ideal
Language: en
Pages: 256
Authors: Heather Douglas
Categories: Philosophy
Type: BOOK - Published: 2009-07-15 - Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre

GET EBOOK

The role of science in policymaking has gained unprecedented stature in the United States, raising questions about the place of science and scientific expertise
The SAGE Handbook of the Philosophy of Social Sciences
Language: en
Pages: 773
Authors: Ian C Jarvie
Categories: Social Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2011-02-17 - Publisher: SAGE

GET EBOOK

- what is the relationship between the social sciences and the natural sciences? - where do today′s dominant approaches to doing social science come from? - w
Value-Free Science
Language: en
Pages: 256
Authors: Harold Kincaid
Categories: Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2007-03-15 - Publisher: Oxford University Press

GET EBOOK

It has long been thought that science is our best hope for realizing objective knowledge, but that, to deliver on this promise, it must be value free. Things ar
Objectivity in the Feminist Philosophy of Science
Language: en
Pages: 160
Authors: Karen Cordrick Haely
Categories: Philosophy
Type: BOOK - Published: 2008-03-20 - Publisher: A&C Black

GET EBOOK

Scientific knowledge is widely considered to be the most certain kind of knowledge, free from social or cultural bias. This freedom from bias or values, the obj
Is Science Value Free?
Language: en
Pages: 308
Authors: Hugh Lacey
Categories: Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2004-05-20 - Publisher: Psychology Press

GET EBOOK

In this book, Hugh Lacey explicates and appraises the view that science is value free. Lacey discusses how science and values interact, with a focus on a discus
Objectivity in Science
Language: en
Pages:
Authors: Stephen John
Categories: Philosophy
Type: BOOK - Published: 2021-06-10 - Publisher: Cambridge University Press

GET EBOOK

Objectivity is a key concept both in how we talk about science in everyday life and in the philosophy of science. This Element explores various ways in which re
Current Controversies in Values and Science
Language: en
Pages: 186
Authors: Kevin C. Elliott
Categories: Philosophy
Type: BOOK - Published: 2017-03-27 - Publisher: Taylor & Francis

GET EBOOK

Current Controversies in Values and Science asks ten philosophers to debate five questions (two philosophers per debate) that are driving contemporary work in t