Physiological and Pathological Responses to Hypoxia and High Altitude

Physiological and Pathological Responses to Hypoxia and High Altitude

The appearance of photosynthetic organisms about 3 billion years ago increased the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the atmosphere and enabled the evolution of organisms that use glucose and oxygen to produce ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. Hypoxia is commonly defined as the reduced availability of oxygen in the tissues produced by different causes, which include reduction of atmospheric PO2 as in high altitude, and secondary to pathological conditions such as sleep breathing and pulmonary disorders, anemia, and cardiovascular alterations leading to inadequate transport, delivery, and exchange of oxygen between capillaries and cells. Nowadays, it has been shown that hypoxia plays an important role in the genesis of several human pathologies including cardiovascular, renal, myocardial and cerebral diseases in fetal, young and adult life. Several mechanisms have evolved to maintain oxygen homeostasis. Certainly, all cells respond and adapt to hypoxia, but only a few of them can detect hypoxia and initiate a cascade of signals intended to produce a functional systemic response. In mammals, oxygen detection mechanisms have been extensively studied in erythropoietin-producing cells, chromaffin cells, bulbar and cortical neurons, pulmonary neuroepithelial cells, smooth muscle cells of pulmonary arteries, and chemoreceptor cells. While the precise mechanism underpinning oxygen, sensing is not completely known several molecular entities have been proposed as possible oxygen sensors (i.e. Hem proteins, ion channels, NADPH oxidase, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase). Remarkably, cellular adaptation to hypoxia is mediated by the master oxygen-sensitive transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1, which can induce up-regulation of different genes to cope the cellular effects related to a decrease in oxygen levels. Short-term responses to hypoxia included mainly chemoreceptor-mediated reflex ventilatory and hemodynamic adaptations to manage the low oxygen concentration while more prolonged exposures to hypoxia can elicit more sustained physiological responses including switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism, vascularization, and enhancement of blood O2 carrying capacity. The focus of this research topic is to provide an up-to-date vision on the current knowledge on oxygen sensing mechanism, physiological responses to acute or chronic hypoxia and cellular/tissue/organ adaptations to hypoxic environment.

Download Now


Author
Publisher Frontiers Media SA
Release Date
ISBN 2889638006
Pages 387 pages
Rating 4.5/5 (00 users)

More Books:

Physiological and Pathological Responses to Hypoxia and High Altitude
Language: en
Pages: 387
Authors: Rodrigo Iturriaga
Categories:
Type: BOOK - Published: 2020-06-22 - Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

GET EBOOK

The appearance of photosynthetic organisms about 3 billion years ago increased the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the atmosphere and enabled the evolution
Physiological and Pathological Responses to Hypoxia and High Altitude, Volume II
Language: en
Pages: 256
Authors: Rodrigo Iturriaga
Categories: Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2022-09-14 - Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

GET EBOOK

High Altitude Sickness – Solutions from Genomics, Proteomics and Antioxidant Interventions
Language: en
Pages: 223
Authors: Narendra Kumar Sharma
Categories: Medical
Type: BOOK - Published: 2022-08-01 - Publisher: Springer Nature

GET EBOOK

This book reviews the recent advances in the development of proteomics-based biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of altitude sickness and explores the pot
Water Metabolism and Fluid Compartment Volumes in Humans at Altitude
Language: en
Pages: 114
Authors:
Categories: Altitudes
Type: BOOK - Published: 1997 - Publisher:

GET EBOOK

Harper's Practical Genetic Counselling, Eighth Edition
Language: en
Pages: 485
Authors: Angus Clarke
Categories: Medical
Type: BOOK - Published: 2016-06-15 - Publisher: CRC Press

GET EBOOK

Easy to use, and useful when kept close at hand in the room where you work. The book is a pleasure to read: the style elegant and authoritative.' Lancet '...thi
High Altitude Physiology
Language: en
Pages: 432
Authors: Ruth Porter
Categories: Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2009-09-18 - Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

GET EBOOK

The Novartis Foundation Series is a popular collection of the proceedings from Novartis Foundation Symposia, in which groups of leading scientists from a range
Human Adaptability
Language: en
Pages: 496
Authors: Emilio F. Moran
Categories: Social Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2018-05-04 - Publisher: Routledge

GET EBOOK

Designed to help students understand the multiple levels at which human populations respond to their surroundings, this essential text offers the most complete
Human Adaptability, Student Economy Edition
Language: en
Pages: 387
Authors: Emilio Moran
Categories: Social Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2018-10-03 - Publisher: Routledge

GET EBOOK

This book focuses on mechanisms of human adaptability. It integrates findings from ecology, physiology, social anthropology, and geography around a set of probl
Comparative Biology of the Normal Lung
Language: en
Pages: 834
Authors: Richard A. Parent
Categories: Science
Type: BOOK - Published: 2015-03-13 - Publisher: Academic Press

GET EBOOK

Comparative Biology of the Normal Lung, 2nd Edition, offers a rigorous and comprehensive reference for all those involved in pulmonary research. This fully upda
Levick's Introduction to Cardiovascular Physiology
Language: en
Pages: 448
Authors: Neil Herring
Categories: Medical
Type: BOOK - Published: 2018-04-17 - Publisher: CRC Press

GET EBOOK

A sound knowledge of cardiovascular physiology is fundamental to understanding cardiovascular disease, exercise performance and may other aspects of human physi